이 글에서는 ‘수필의 시대’로 평가되는 1960년대를 돌아보며 ‘수필’을 둘러싼 담론적 길항과 철학자의 글쓰기가 확장시켜낸 수필의 장르적 특성에 대해 조망하고자 하였다. 1960년대에 김형석, 안병욱, 김태길은 연세대, 숭실대, 서울대 철학 교수이자 다량의 수필집을 내는 작가로 활동했다. 그럼에도 이들에 대한 연구는 거의 이루어지지 않았다. 그 이유는 일차적으로 수필 자체를 저평가하는 문학사 내부의 편견과 수필의 장르적 특성을 ‘문학적인 것’으로 한정하고자 하는 관행이 연동한 결과이다. 1960년대 수필이 풍미하게 된 것은 전쟁과 4.19를 거치며 개인의 경험과 사유를 객관화하고자 하는 민주주의적 요구가 근간에 깔려 있다. 철학자의 언어는 시민교양과 국민도덕이 부재하던 당대 독자들에게 1인칭 글쓰기의 다양한 감각으로 수용되었다. 김형석은 역사적 체험에 근거한 위로와 극복의 서사로, 안병욱은 민족주의에 근거한 자기 수양과 소명의 논리로, 그리고 김태길은 소시민의 삶을 객관화하는 성찰과 유머로 1950-60년대 공론장의 결락을 메웠다. 다만, 철학자의 수필이 당대의 공적 담론과 연동하지 못하면서 1970년대 시민교양을 촉발, 매개하는 데까지 나아가지 못했다. 그럼에도 1960년대 수필이 역사적으로 부상하는 지점에서 드러나 ‘수필’ 장르의 특성과 이와 연동하며 풍미한 철학자의 언어가 지닌 문화사의 공과에 대해 생각해보고자 했다.
This article aimed to looked back at the 1960s, which were assessed to be ‘the age of essays’, to survey denotations of essays, amplified by the discourse antagonism surrounding ‘essays’ and the writings of philosophers. Kim Hyeong Suk, Ahn Byeong Uk, and Kim Te Gil were philosophy professors of Yonsei University, Soongshil University, and Seoul National University and writers of numerous essay collections of the 1960s. However, there have been very few studies conducted on them. This is because of old prejudices within literary history that primarily undervalue essays and practices that try to limit them as ‘Literariness’. Essays of the 1960s became the flavor of the times based on democratic demands that attempted to objectify individual experiences and grounds that passed through the war and the April 19 Revolution. The language of philosophers was expropriated through the various senses of first person writing to readers of the times, which lacked civil culture and national morality. Deficits in public spheres of the 1950s and 1960s were filled by Kim Hyeong Suk’s narrations of comfort and conquest based on historic experiences, Ahn Byeong Uk’s logic of self-discipline and knowledge based on democracy, and Kim Te Gil’s humor and introspection that objectified the lives of the petit bourgeois. However, as the essays of philosophers failed to connect with the public discourse of the age, they were unable to go as far as sparking or serving as a medium for civil culture in the 1970s. Regardless, as essays rose historically in the 1960s, thought was given to the characteristics of the ‘essay’ genre and in connection, to the merits and demerits of cultural history that possesses the language of philosophers.
In this article, the “modernization of the tradition” constructed on the cultural politics and the way in which it appropriated in the korean theatre in the 1970s were analyzed. It is trying to reveal its implications. It is also a work to critically review the aspects of self-censorship in the korean theatre in the 70s. To that end, we looked at the theatre company Minye Theatre, which preoccupied the traditional discussions in the 1970s by creating national dramas. Until now, the evaluation of the theatre company Minye Theatre in the 1970s has focused on the achievement on the directing of Heo Gyu, who promoted the succession and transformation of tradition. However, the traditional ideology constructed in the state-led cultural politics in the 70s and the way in which it was operated cannot be evaluated only in terms of artistic achievement. The ideology of tradition is selected according to the selective criteria of the subject to appropriate tradition. What’s important is that certain objects are excluded, discarded, re-elected, re-interpreted and re-recognized in the selection process of selected traditional ideology. This is the situation in the ‘70s, when tradition was constantly re-recognized amid differences between the decadent and the disorder that were then designated as non-cultural, and led to a new way of appropriate. The nation-led traditional discussion of the ‘70s legalized the tradition with stable values, one of the its way was the national literary and artistic support. Under the banner of modernization of tradition, theatre company Minye preoccupied the discussions on the tradition and presented folk drama as a new theatre. As an alternative to the crisis of korean theatre at the time, the Minye chose the method of inheriting and transforming tradition. It is noteworthy that Heo Gyu, the representative director of the theatre company Minye, recognized the succession and transformation of traditional performance as both a calling and an experiment. For Heo Gyu, tradition was accepted as an irresistible stable value and an unquestionable calling, and as a result, his performance, filled with excessive traditional practices, became overambitious, especially when it failed to reflect the present-here reality, the repeated use of traditional expression tools resulted in skilled craftsmanship, not artistic creation. The traditional ideology of the 70s unfolds in a new aspect of appropriation in the 80s. In 1986, Son Jin-Cheok, Kim Seong-nyeo, and Yoon Mun-sik, who were key members of the theatre company Minye Theatre, left the theatre to create the theatre company Michu, and secured popularity through Madangnori(popular folk yard theatre). Son Jin-Cheok's Madangnori is overbearing through satire and humor. It gained popularity by criticizing and mocking state power. On the other hand, not only the form of traditional performance, but also the university-centered Madanggeuk movement, which appropriated on the spirit of resistance from the people to its traditional values, has rapidly grown. In the field of traditional discussions of the 70s, Madanggeuk was self-born through appropriation in which the spirit of resistance of the people is used as a traditional value. Madanggeuk as well as Michu that achieved the popularization of Madangnori cannot be discussed solely by the artistic achievement of the modernization of tradition. Critics of korean theatre in response to state-led traditional discussions in the 70s was focused only on the qualitative achievement of performing arts based on artistry. I am very sorry for that. As a result, the popular resistance of the Madanggeuk and the Madangnori were established in the ‘difference’ with the traditions of the theatre company Minye Theatre. Theatre company Minye Theatre was an opportunity for the modernization of tradition, but the fact that it did not continuously produce significant differences. This is the meaning and limitation of the “tradition” of the theatre company Minye Theatre in the history of korean theatre in the 1970s.
The study noted the characteristics of the web novel’s ‘Book Travel’ motif, which reflects the characteristics of popular culture content, which is free to use familiar genre grammar or code. The imagination of the main character entering the work he read in the real world is a reinterpretation of the existing genre grammar of the web novel, and studying the motif is meaningful in reviewing the intertext of the genre. This motif, summarized as ‘Book Travel’ differs from other genres in the romance fantasy genre, which can also be used to reveal the gender characteristics of the genre. The study noted that the ‘Book Travel’ motif was born from an interactive interpretation of existing narratives, thus having a affinity with dimensional shift, regression, and alternative historical objects, and referring to the writing norms of Fanfiction. Through this, it was predicted that the re-combination of existing narratives and interference between genres would continue in the future. Next, the original move in the romance fantasy genre was seen as quite conservative and revealing the logic of self-improvement even though people around him became the main characters and overthrew the narrative. The characters should use their knowledge of the future of the real world to fight in a world of survival where destruction has been predicted. The appearance of an ethical and self-help subject is interesting, but on the other hand, I could look at conservatism in that romance is a way of survival and achievement of characters. The research is meaningful in that it reviewed the characteristics of the original transfer motif, which started fairly quickly in the romance fantasy genre, and reviewed its appearance background and characteristics. There was a limit to the collection of physical works and limited platform. The above limits are intended to be supplemented by further reviewing and supplementing later works.
Manga develops by reflecting a change of society, reader’s needs, and their thoughts and changes of tastes, sensitively. Shojo manga and Jyosei manga also do. We can find several kinds of meaningful changes in Japanese Jyosei manga in the 2010s. The works which represent preciousness of daily life, women’s narrative and self-realization are gradually increasing. In addition, the works that deal with very touchy issues such as sex discrimination at work, sexual harassment begin to emerge. It has never been found in the manga of the former era. While this paper analyzes the social and cultural causes of these changes of the works that exclude romance and treat gender issues focusing on recent works, it examines changes of Japanese Jyosei manga in the 2010s and their meanings. I investigate the current trends of Japanese Jyosei manga in the 2010s through Umimachi Diary that represents a precious everyday life with woman-centered narrative, Metamorphose no engawa that deals with women’s story from a new perspective, Good-bye My Miniskirt that tackles gender issues. Furthermore I intensively analyze how Nagi’s Long Vacation and Darucyan, which win popularity from women in their 20s~30, represent lives and troubles of contemporary Japanese women. Nagi’s Long Vacation represents the heroine’s quest for a self throwing everything out. While Darucyan deals with self-realization, it forms of a bond of sympathy of readers by representing the heroine who suffers sexual harassment and inequal conditions very realistically. Nagi’s Long Vacation and Darucyan have something in common with portraying troubles and self-realization of the working women in their 20s based on a indigenous reality to Japanese society very realistically. However they are unusual in that it is different from the manga of the former era in dealing with heroine’s troubles and their solutions. The most distinctive changes of Jyosei manga since 2010 are that real issues surfaced with social changes. In addition, these social contradictions result from irrational discriminations and old customs of Japanese society for a long time. Manga reflects subtly the portraits of the times, their images of women, and their values. These changes of Jyosei manga also show the concerns of readers at that time, and it means that women began to be aware of the issues.
This paper seeks to expand the scale of literary history by restoring and analyzing the whole aspect of Kwak Hashin’s works, which has so far been studied little. For this purpose, I notice the rupture of discontinuity of his works which is greatly divided into the colonial period and post Korean war period. And the characteristics of each works can be analyzed based on the three axis, local(colonial period), jobless person(post-war period), and Homo Economicus(some short stories, and popular novels in post-war period). In Chapter 2, ‘Local-the world of Munjang’, I evaluated that Kwak Hashin’s novel, which had been published in the late 1930s in the Journal of Munjang, embodied anti-modern aesthetic consciousness, as clearly revealing the sorrow for disappearing things, the pre-modern sense of time, and the preference for local. In Chapter 3, ‘Jobless Person’ and Chapter 4, ‘The State of All People’s Struggle against All People, The Appearance of Homo Economicus’, the Korean society in late 1950s, which entered underdeveloped capitalist countries after Korean war, can be characterized by two contrasting male-gender, one is the jobless, incompetent male, and the economic man on the other hand. In the late ‘50s, Lumpen(=Jobless Person) novels showed the problems of the Korean economy through incompetent male character. The intelligent men took the path to survival rather than morality or intimacy, projecting their own incompetence and anxiety to women/wives. In the popular novels Women’s Song and The Shadow of the Fig Tree, achievement-oriented male figures who betrayed their colleagues, and exploited women’s sex by using love relationships to rise to the top appeared. They can be defined as the Homo Economicus who embody the state of universal struggle against all people. These novels showed the formation of the masculinity in post Korean war period, which pursued the survival of the fittest, borrowing form of popular novel. As we have seen so far, Kwak Hashin needs to be re-evaluated as an writer who expanded the modern literary history in the outside of literature. He was the last generation writer written in Korean late colonial period, and provided the model of postwar literature by borrowing the form of journalism and popular novels.
This study is an analysis of Handol Heung-Gun Lee’s Tarae, which is a coinage combining the Korean words for “playing an instrument” and “song”, in terms of narrative and aesthetics. The components for analysis are the phenomena and nature of binary oppositions between nature and human beings, between alienation and interest, between division and unification, and between diaspora and people of the national community. Tarae in the period from the late 1970s to the early 1990s described the experience of pain and loss from non-resistance and disobedience in protest against social problems that emerged during the era of miliary dictatorship, such as industrialization, urbanization, reckless development, Westernization, university-oriented education, the gap between rich and poor, human alienation, and the conflicts arising from the division of the nation. After Handol overcame the lack of creative motivation with self-reflection and effort, Tarae took the form of a diaspora epic meta-narratives integrating the “sound of nature and his true nature” and “the awareness of diaspora and the spirit of the Korean people”. The epics of the homeland, the national soil and the people, which began with “Teo”, became more intense in terms of a sense of diaspora as they shifted their focus from an origin to a path with “Hanmoejulghi” as the turning point. Handol seeks inspiration in the source of narrative rather than in music. His Tarae focuses on “adding rhythm for lyrics”. For this reason, the semiotic features of Tarae have a limitation in that its extrinsic phonology is simple even if its intrinsic meaning (i.e., emotion of sadness) is profound and subtle. In order to elicit sympathy from the audience and impress them, it is necessary to strike a balance between the implicit (semantic) part and the explicit (phonological) part. To share the emotion of sadness with more people, it is necessary to strengthen phonological elements. Sympathy for sadness and deep impression on the audience are more often induced by the mood of similar sentiments than by the stories of the same experience. The aesthetics of sadness in Tarae began with the narratives of past experience which were expressed in the contexts of loss, loneliness, and poverty that Handol had experienced since childhood. However, the aesthetics of sadness, deepened over the period of a long hiatus in Handol’s career as a composer, formed the narratives of ultimate salvation, embodying even the diaspora experience of others (e.g., displaced people, overseas adoptees, ethnic Koreans in Russia, victims of Japanese military sexual slavery, etc.). This gave Tarae the potential to go beyond the limits of the ethnic group of Korea. Tarae, as a “dispersed sound”, can benefit from the appeal of deep sadness at the point of contact with other forms of world music. It may form a global diaspora discourse because Tarae is oriented towards interculturalism rather than anti-multiculturalism. The future challenge and goal of Handol’s Tarae would be to continue to find areas of sympathy and broaden the horizon of awareness as diaspora music.
This paper finds a solution in the social context which cannot be explained thoroughly by well-timed release date, revival of comedy films, and the attraction of Lee Byeong-heon’s comedy etc. while it throws question of how the film, Extreme Job captivated 16 million audience. The incredible hits of Extreme Job cannot be explained by analyzing the text alone. After this essay investigates a function and a role of comedy as a public sphere, it examines people’s desires and wishes in the comedy and other genres since 2008 when the conservative government has seized power. Since 2008 a series of dark tone’s action thriller, social problem film, and disaster film have emerged, these genres showed absence of public security, crisis of democracy and criticism against rulling class. On the other hand, hit comedy films have showed escapism such as weepie, nostalgia, and fantasy at the same time, generally. Although Veteran (2015) is not full-blown comedy, after this film’s big success, “comic mode” has gradually revived. A light tone’s films which are truer to genre rules has started representing the wishes of people toward social reforms and changes. Meanwhile, “Candlelight Protest” served as a momentum to recover the democracy which has been in crisis, but it could not lead changes in economic and daily lives. Exreme Job can be read as a question how we will survive since “Candlight Protest.” The lives of detectives as self-employed workers who has taken over a fried chicken restaurant for going undercover are appearances of ordinary persons who must survive in the edless conpetition. Furthermore, this film shows a dream of a “great success myth” which becomes well-known as a famous restaurant and a self-management such as brand-naming and an exapansion of franchise business. We can read ganster’s chicken franchises as a huge distribution industry which disturbs market system by delivering drugs secretly. While applauses that we give to the police having identities of self-employed workers which sweeps the ganster are giving support to oridinary neighborhood like us, they are also wishes of people who long for the restoration of publicness of police in the market which is becoming increasingly privatized today. A significance of this essay is to examine Extreme Job in terms of the geography of film genres and the revival of comic mode sicne 2008 at the macro level, and is to read the film in the perspective of the problems of economic and daily lives which has been still unsolved since “Candlelight Protest” at the micro level.
The purpose of this study is to propose ‘plot lamination methodology’ for planning and analyzing of storytelling. The story contents with a certain volume of narrative might have several important characters. Most of the characters have meaningful influences on the context of the story through their choices and actions as they go through dynamic changes to construct and deconstruct relationships. The plot lamination methodology is the result of an attempt to look at the process from the ‘strategic’ point of view by focusing on the fact that the main characters with supplementary nature contribute to the independent formation of subplot based on the main plot driven by the protagonist. Regardless of how they live their own unique and autonomous life in the narrative, the main characters hold a relatively subordinate position within the centripetal force of the main plot. Their journeys tend to expand/emphasize/divide up the process of the main plot’s ‘persuasion via causality,’ and also individualize into the functions of emotional sympathy (pathos), moral, ethical perspective (ethos), and rational logic (logos). As such, the subplots of main characters are laminated according to these three functional traits, which could become multi-layered through second or third laminations, depending on the number and roles of other characters. If the plot lamination methodology is further developed through follow-up studies, it will open up the possibilities of the strategic design (planning) and aesthetic criticism (analysis) regarding the procedure of conjugation /branching of subplot and/from the main plot.
In this paper, I review Pellegrino’s Reader, The Philosophy of Medicine Reborn. Pellegrino has emphasized the humanities’ reflection on the ethics of medicine. He insists that medical ethics should be re-established as modern society changes. This paper, based on Pellegrino’s view, noted the problematic situation in literature and popular narrative texts. Indeed, I wanted to see what answer medical ethics could provide for us. Medical personnel had a philosophical dilemma or a conflict between reality and ethics. Pellegrino argues that medical personnel, above all, need to sympathize with the patient’s pain and respond to their needs through interaction with them. This may seem like a very legitimate declaration. But a physician in literary texts and popular narrative texts is often exposed to this ethical dilemma. Through Lee Cheongjun’s novel, we can reflect on how a medical personnel could lead a patient to a state of “goodness”. And through medical dramas, we can grasp what ethical behaviors the public demands from a medical personnel. Now that the world is suffering from COVID-19, medical workers are in a great trouble, but at the same time, they are respected by the public and are also enhancing their value as ethical beings. Now that medical care has become an everyday narrative, medical ethics is becoming a prerequisite for living. This paper attempted to recognize the importance of medical ethics and to review the ethical issues embodied in medical narratives.